L' exposome : vers une science intégrative des expositions?

  • Élodie Giroux ucl
Mots-clés: exposome, exposomique, épidémiologie moléculaire, épidémiologie sociale, incorporation, socio-marqueur, biomarqueur, holisme, réductionnisme, environnement, integration, étiologie, causalité, déterminants sociaux

Résumé

L’exposome réfère à un domaine émergent de recherche qui a pour visée de développer une science intégrée de l’ensemble des expositions auxquelles est soumis un individu tout au long de sa vie et qui influencent sa santé. Deux principales orientations se font jour. L’une se concentre sur l’étude de l’exposome interne qui permettrait d’identifier l’essentiel des expositions impactant la santé en mesurant avec précision les effets au niveau de l’environnement biochimique du corps. L’autre entend intégrer les expositions sociales, écologiques et les expositions biologiques et internes, ou autrement dit, faire davantage de place à l’étude de l’exposome externe et ainsi développer un modèle holiste de la santé environnementale. À partir de l’examen de la littérature scientifique, de l’analyse de la première génération d’études exposomiques (2010-2020) et d’entretiens menés auprès d’épidémiologistes engagés dans ces recherches, cet article propose un état des lieux des promesses et réalisations de ce domaine émergent quant à l’intégration des expositions, tout en ayant l’ambition d’apporter un regard critique sur ces dernières. Après avoir présenté l’exposome et ses diverses interprétations, nous examinerons quel type d’intégration est en jeu dans chacune de ces deux orientations et nous en questionnerons l’intérêt et la pertinence. Notre analyse se concentre plus particulièrement sur la seconde orientation : quels gages cette tendance la plus holiste donne-t-elle en vue d’un renouvellement de nos manières d’intégrer les facteurs environnementaux et génétiques, sociaux et biologiques, dans notre approche des expositions et de l’explication des maladies ?

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Publiée
2021-08-05
Comment citer
Giroux, Élodie. 2021. « L’ Exposome : Vers Une Science intégrative Des Expositions? ». Lato Sensu: Revue De La Société De Philosophie Des Sciences 8 (3), 9-28. https://doi.org/10.20416/LSRSPS.V8I3.2.
Rubrique
Article de recherche