Lato Sensu: Revue de la Société de philosophie des sciences https://ojs.uclouvain.be/index.php/latosensu <p>La Société a fondé une revue, gratuite, basée sur le Web, et conforme aux normes internationales. Intitulée <em>Lato Sensu, Revue de la Société de philosophie des sciences</em>, elle paraît deux à trois fois par an et publie des textes en français et en anglais. Le critère principal pour l’acceptation est bien sûr la qualité scientifique, mais une attention particulière est aussi accordée à l'originalité. Différents formats, outre l’article classique, sont envisagés : états de l’art, débats, ensembles thématiques, etc. La revue bénéficiera de l’aide et des conseils d’un conseil scientifique prestigieux composée à égalité de philosophes et de scientifiques.</p> Société de philosophie des sciences fr-FR Lato Sensu: Revue de la Société de philosophie des sciences 2295-8029 <p>Les auteurs conservent le droit d'auteur et accordent à la revue le droit de première publication, l'ouvrage étant alors disponible simultanément, sous la licence <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/">Licence d’attribution Creative Commons</a> permettant à d'autres de partager l'ouvrage tout en en reconnaissant la paternité et la publication initiale dans cette revue.</p> Introduction https://ojs.uclouvain.be/index.php/latosensu/article/view/60623 Isabelle Drouet Cyrille Imbert Maël Lemoine Copyright (c) 2021 Isabelle Drouet, Cyrille Imbert, Maël Lemoine http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-04-06 2021-04-06 8 2 1 5 10.20416/LSRSPS.V8I2.1 Chance Debugged https://ojs.uclouvain.be/index.php/latosensu/article/view/14653 <p>A ‘Big Bad Bug’ threatens Lewis’s Humean metaphysics of chance (Lewis 1986a, p. XIV); his Principal Principle provides an intuitive link between chance and credence. Yet on the one hand, certain future developments are incompatible with the true theory of chance, but on the other hand, such future developments have a positive chance to occur. The combination of these two claims with the Principal Principle leads to inconsistent credences. I present a Humean solution to the Bug: chances are relative to a limited perspective. The perspective comprises facts available as evidence to an ideal cognizer at a point in space-time. As a consequence, the same future event can have different chances of occurring provided the perspective is different. I show how this dissolves the Bug.</p> Daniel Dohrn Copyright (c) 2021 Daniel Dohrn http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-04-06 2021-04-06 8 2 6 14 10.20416/LSRSPS.V8I2.2 Exploring the boundaries and ontology of Psychiatric Disorders (PDs) using the Homeostatic Property Cluster (HPC) model https://ojs.uclouvain.be/index.php/latosensu/article/view/14623 <p>In this article we show that, even though the classification and diagnosis of Psychiatric Disorders (PDs) are performed according to essentialist terms, the psychiatric diagnoses currently employed, (i.e., clinical psychiatry) do not actually meet these criteria. Diagnosis is performed operationally. In this paper, we suggest a change of perspective. We reject essentialism relating to PDs and argue for the Homeostatic Property Cluster (HPC) model, which allows a greater insight into the ontology of PDs than the operational perspective. More specifically, we argue that the HPC model allows for a synthesis of continuous and discrete methods of understanding the boundaries between PDs. Finally, we specify in a more general manner, the kind of ontology we deal with when adopting the HPC model, arguing that this model can be viewed as a mirror device, reflecting the ontological features of PDs.</p> Marco Casali Copyright (c) 2021 Marco Casali http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-04-06 2021-04-06 8 2 15 31 10.20416/LSRSPS.V8I2.3 Biodiversity databanks and scientific exploration https://ojs.uclouvain.be/index.php/latosensu/article/view/20573 <p>For several decades now, biologists have been developing digital databanks, which are remarkable scientific instruments allowing scientists to accelerate the development of biological knowledge. From the beginnings of the Human Genome Project (HGP) onwards, genetic databanks have been a major component of current biological knowledge, and biodiversity databanks have also been developed in the wake of the HGP. The purpose of this paper is to identify the specific features of biodiversity data and databanks, and to point out their contribution to biodiversity knowledge.</p> Anouk Barberousse Copyright (c) 2021 Anouk Barberousse http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-04-06 2021-04-06 8 2 32 43 10.20416/LSRSPS.V8I2.4 The Agnostic Structure of Data Science Methods https://ojs.uclouvain.be/index.php/latosensu/article/view/15573 <p>In this paper we argue that data science is a coherent and novel approach to empirical problems that, in its most general form, does not build understanding about phenomena. Within the new type of mathematization at work in data science, mathematical methods are not selected because of any relevance for a problem at hand; mathematical methods are applied to a specific problem only by `forcing’, i.e. on the basis of their ability to reorganize the data for further analysis and the intrinsic richness of their mathematical structure. In particular, we argue that deep learning neural networks are best understood within the context of forcing optimization methods. We finally explore the broader question of the appropriateness of data science methods in solving problems. We argue that this question should not be interpreted as a search for a correspondence between phenomena and specific solutions found by data science methods; rather, it is the internal structure of data science methods that is open to precise forms of understanding.</p> Domenico Napoletani Marco Panza Daniele Struppa Copyright (c) 2021 Marco Panza http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-04-06 2021-04-06 8 2 44 57 10.20416/LSRSPS.V8I2.5 Une ontologie dispositionnelle du risque https://ojs.uclouvain.be/index.php/latosensu/article/view/14753 <p align="JUSTIFY">Le risque est une entité omniprésente dans le domaine biomédical. Une caractérisation ontologique cohérente du risque est donc nécessaire pour faciliter l'échange et le rassemblement des données informatiques du domaine biomédical à des fins cliniques et des fins de recherche à l'aide d'outils nommés «&nbsp;ontologies appliquées&nbsp;». Nous analysons certaines définitions du risque et en tirons deux traits généraux que le risque partage avec les dispositions. Nous proposons par conséquent une définition du risque comme une disposition dont la réalisation est indésirable pour un agent. Cette définition permet de concilier la dimension objective et la dimension subjective du risque&nbsp;: un risque existe indépendamment de notre connaissance de celui-ci, mais le statut de risque d'une disposition pour un agent dépend des préférences de cet agent.</p> Olivier Grenier Adrien Barton Copyright (c) 2021 Olivier Grenier http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-04-06 2021-04-06 8 2 58 69 10.20416/LSRSPS.V8I2.6