L' Attention et la justificationdes croyances perceptives

Mots-clés: Attention, Perception, Justification doxastique, Justification propositionnelle, conscience phénoménale, conscience, conscience d’accès

Résumé

L’objectif de cet essai est de défendre la thèse selon laquelle l’attention endogène est une condition nécessaire de la justification des croyances perceptives. Je critique l’approche phénoménale selon laquelle c’est le caractère phénoménal (ou la phénoménologie) des expériences perceptives qui confère à celles-ci leur rôle dans la justification. Je prendrai pour cible principale la version qu’en offrent Siegel et Silins (2014 ; 2019). Contre cette approche, je défends que la notion de justification ne peut se comprendre sans référence aux mécanismes cognitifs par lesquels le sujet peut mobiliser une raison à l’appui de ses attitudes propositionnelles – mécanismes que les approches phénoménales négligent et pour lesquels l’attention est nécessaire. En m’appuyant sur la distinction entre justification propositionnelle et justification doxastique, je critique d’abord les cas supposés de justification en l’absence d’attention avant d’élaborer un argument en deux temps. Dans un premier temps, je montre que l’attention endogène, en raison de son rôle fonctionnel, est nécessaire pour la justification doxastique. Dans un second temps, en m’appuyant sur les analyses de Turri (2010), j’établis que la justification propositionnelle a également pour condition nécessaire l’attention.

Biographie de l'auteur

Émile Thalabard, Université Paris-Sorbonne

Docteur en Philosophie (2012), Université Paris-Sorbonne

Chercheur associé, "Sciences, normes, démocratie", UMR 8011, Sorbonne Université

Références

ALSTON, William P. 1985. Concepts of Epistemic Justification. The Monist, 68 (1), 57-89. 10.5840/monist198568116

ARIELY, Dan. 2001. Seeing Sets : Representation by Statistical Properties. Psychological Science, 12 (2), 157-162. doi: 10.1111/1467-9280.00327

AWH, Edward., JONIDES, John, REUTER-LORENZ, Patricia. 1998. Rehearsal in Spatial Working Memory., Journal of Experimental Psychology and Human Perceptual Performance, 24 (3), 780-790. doi: 10.1037/0096-1523.24.3.780

AWH, Edward, JONIDES, John. 2001. Overlapping Mechanisms of Attention and Spatial Working Memory., Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 5 (3), 119-126. doi: 10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01593-X

AWH, Edward, VOGEL, Edward, OH, Seihwan. 2006. Interactions between Attention and Working Memory., Neurosciences, 139(1), 201-208. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2005.08.023

AWH, Edward, BELOPOLSKY, Artem, THEEUWES, Jan. 2012. Top-down versus Bottom-up Attentional Control : A Failed Theoretical Dichotomy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16(8), 437-443. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2012.06.010

BADDELEY, Alan. 1983. Working Memory. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B Series, Biological Sciences, 302 (1110), 311-324. doi: 10.1098/rstb.1983.0057

BERGHOFER, Philipp. 2020. Motivating and Defending the Phenomenological Conception of Perceptual Justification. Inquiry. doi : 10.1080/0020174X.2020.1712232.

BLOCK, Ned. 1995. On a Confusion about a Function of Consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 18(02), 227-247. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X00038188

BLOCK, Ned. 2007. Consciousness, Accessibility and the Mesh between Psychology and Neuroscience. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 30 (5/6), 481-499. DOI: 10.1037/0096-1523.24.3.780

BONA, Silvia, SILVANTO, Juha. 2014. Accuracy and Confidence of Visual Short-Term Memory Do not Go Hand-in-hand : Behavioral and Neural Dissociations. PLoS ONE, 9, e90808. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090808

BRONFMAN, Zohar, BREZIS, Noam, JACOBSON, Hilla, USHER, Marius. 2014. We See More than We Can Report : « Cost Free » Color Phenomenality Outside Focal Attention. Psychological Science, 25 (7), 1394-1403. doi: 10.1177/0956797614532656

CARRASCO, Marisa, LING, Sam, READ, Sarah. 2004. Attention Alters Appearances. Nature Neuroscience, 7 (3), 308-313. doi: 10.1038/nn1194

CHOW, Michael, CONWAY, Andrew. 2015. The Scope and Control of Attention: Sources of Variance in Working Memory Capacity. Memory & Cognition, 43(3), 325–-339. doi: 10.3758/s13421-014-0496-9

COHEN, Michael, DENNETT, Daniel, KANWISHER, Nancy. 2016. What Is the Bandwidth of Perceptual Experience ? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 20(5), 324-335. doi : 10.1016/j.tics.2016.03.006

COWAN, Nelson. 2005. Working Memory Capacity. Hove, UK: Psychology Press. doi: 10.4324/9780203342398

de GARDELLE, Vincent, SACKUR, Jérôme, KOUIDER, Sid. 2009. Perceptual Illusions in Brief Visual Presentations. Consciousness and Cognition, 18, 569-577. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2009.03.002

DEHAENE, Stanislas, CHARLES, Lucie, KING, Jean-Rémi, MARTI, Sébastien. 2014. Toward a Computational Theory of Conscious Processing. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 25C, 76-84. doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2013.12.005

DEHAENE, Stanislas, NACCACHE, Lionel. 2001. Towards a Cognitive Neuroscience of Consciousness : Basic Evidence and a Workspace Framework. Cognition, 79 (1-2), 1-37. doi: 10.1016/S0010-0277(00)00123-2

DESCARTES, René. 1644. Les principes de la philosophie. Paris, Vrin, 2009.

DOKIC, Jérôme. 2004. Qu’est-ce que la perception ? Paris, Vrin, Chemins philosophiques.

DRETSKE, Fred I. 1969. Seeing and Knowing, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

DRETSKE, Fred I. 2007. What Change Blindness Teaches Us about Consciousness. Philosophical Perspectives, 21(1), 216-230. doi: 10.1111/j.1520-8583.2007.00126.x

EILAN, Naomi. 1998. Perceptual Intentionality, Attention and Consciousness. In O’HEAR, Anthony (ed.), Current Issues in Philosophy of Mind., Cambridge University Press, 181-202.

ENNS, James, Di LOLLO, Vincent. 2000. What’s New in Visual Masking ? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4 (9), 345-352. doi: 10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01520-5

ERIKSSON, Johan, VOGEL, Edward, LANSNER, Anders, BERGSTROM, Fredrik, NYBERG, Lars. 2015. Neurocognitive Architecture of Working Memory. Neuron, 88 (1), 33–46. 10.1016/j.neuron.2015.09.020

FIRTH, Roderick. 1978. Are Epistemological Concepts Reducible to Ethical Concepts ? In GOLDMAN, Alvin, KIM, Jaegwon (dir.). Values and Morals. Reidel Publishing Company, 215-229.

FRÄSSLE, Stefan, SOMMER, Jens, JANSEN, Andreas, NABER, Marnix, EINHÄUSER, Wolfgang. 2014. Binocular Rivalry : Frontal Activity Relates to Introspection and Action, but not to Perception. The Journal of Neuroscience, 34 (5), 1738-1747. doi: 10.1523/‌JNEUROSCI.4403-13.2014

FREEMAN, Jeremy, SIMONCELLI, Eero. 2011. Metamers of the Ventral Stream. Nature Neuroscience, 14 (9), 1195-1201. doi: 10.1038/nn.2889

GAZZALEY, Adam, NOBRE, Anna. 2012. Top-down Modulation: Bridging Selective Attention and Working Memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16 (2), 129-135. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2011.11.014

GEORGE, F.H. (1957) Epistemology and the Problem of Perception., Mind, 66 (264), pp.491-506. doi: 10.2307/2251056

GIBSON, Eleanor, RADER, Nancy. 1979. Attention ; The Perceiver as Performer. In HALE, Gordon, LEWIS, Michael (dir.). Attention and Cognitive Development, Springer, 1-21. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4613-2985-5_1

HUEMER, Michael. 2001. Skepticism and the Veil of Perception. Rowman & Littlefield.

JACKSON-NIELSEN, Molly, COHEN, Michael, PITTS, Michael. 2017. Perception of Ensemble Statistics Requires Attention. Consciousness and Cognition, 48, 149-160. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2016.11.007

JAMES, William. 1890. Principles of Psychology. New York, Holt & Co.

JENNINGS, Carolyn Dicey. 2015. Consciousness Without Attention. Journal of the American Philosophical Association, 1 (2), 276-295. doi: 10.1017/apa.2014.14

KENTRIDGE, Robert, HEYWOOD, Charles, WEISKRANTZ, Lawrence. 1999. Attention Without Aawareness in Blindsight. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, B, 266(1430), pp.1805-1811. doi: 10.1098/rspb.1999.0850

KENTRIDGE, Robert, HEYWOOD, Charles, WEISKRANTZ, Lawrence. 2004. Spatial Attention Speeds Discrimination without Awareness in Blindsight. Neuropsychologia, 42(6), 831-835. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2003.11.001

KENTRIDGE, Robert W. 2013. Visual Attention : Bringing the Unseen Past into View. Current Biology, 23(2), R69-71. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2012.11.056

KIM, Jaegwon. 1988. What is « Naturalized Epistemology » ? Philosophical Perspectives, 2, 381-405. doi: 10.2307/2214082

KING, Jean-Rémi., PESCETELLI, Niccolo, DEHAENE, Stanislas. 2016. Brain Mechanisms Underlying the Brief Maintenance of Seen and Unseen Sensory Information. Neuron, 92, 1122-1134. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2016.10.051

KITCHER, Philip. 1992. The Naturalists Return. The Philosophical Review, 101 (1), 53-114. doi: 10.2307/2185044

KOCH, Cristoph, TSUCHIYA, Naotsogu. 2007. Attention and Consciousness : Two Distinct Brain Processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11(1), 16-22. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2006.10.0

KUNDU, Bornali, SUTTERER, David., EMRICH, Stephen, POSTIE Bradely. 2013. Strengthened Effective Connectivity Underlies Transfer of Working Memory Training to Tests of Short-Term Memory and Attention. Journal of Neuroscience, 33 (20), 8705-8715. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5565-12.2013

LECAS, Claude. 1992. L’attention visuelle : de la conscience aux neurosciences. Liège, Mardaga.

LEPSIEN, Joran, THORNTON, Ian, NOBRE, Anna. 2011. Modulation of Working-Memory Maintenance by Directed Attention. Neuropsychologia, 49 (6), 1569–1577. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016‌‌/‌‌j.neuropsychologia.2011.03.011

LEVI, Dennis. 2011. Visual Crowding. Current Biology, 21 (18), R678. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2011.07.025

MACK, Arien, ROCK, Irvin. 1998. Inattentional Blindness. MIT Press.

MERLEAU-PONTY, Maurice. 1946. La phénoménologie de la perception. Paris, Gallimard.

MEWHORT, Douglas., CAMBPBELL, A.J., MARCHETTI, M., CAMPBELL, Jamie. 1981. Identification, Localization and, « Iconic Memory » : An Evaluation of the Bar-Probe Task. Memory and Cognition, 9(1), 50-67. doi: 10.3758/BF03196951

MITROFF, Stephen, SCHOLL, Brian. 2005. Forming and Updating Object Representations without Awareness : Evidence from Motion-Induced Blindness. Vision Research, 45(8), 961-967. doi: 10.1016/j.visres.2004.09.044

NACCACHE, Lionel. 2018. Why and How Access Consciousness Can Account for Phenomenal Consciousness. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 373(1755) : 20170357. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2017.0357

NAVON, David. 1977. Forest Before Trees : The Precedence of Global Features in Visual Perception. Cognitive Psychology, 9(3), 353-383. doi: 10.1016/0010-0285(77)90012-3

OVERGAARD, Morten. 2011. Visual Experience and Blindsight : A Methodological Review. Experimental Brain Research, 209(4), 473-479. doi: 10.1007/s00221-011-2578-2

PRINZMETAL, William, AMIRI, Hedy, ALLEN, Kristin, EDWARDS, Tami. 1998. Phenomenology of Attention: I. Color, Location, Orientation, and Spatial Frequency. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 24 (1), 261-282. doi: 10.1037/0096-1523.24.1.261

RENSINK, Ronald R., O’REGAN, Kevin, CLARK, James. 1997. To See or not to See : The Need for Attention to Perceive Changes in Scenes. Psychological Science, 8 (5), 368-373. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.1997.tb00427.x

ROESSLER, Johannes. 1999. Perception, Introspection, and Attention. European Journal of Philosophy, 7 (1), 47-64. doi: 10.1111/1468-0378.00073

ROESSLER, Johannes. 2009. Perceptual Experience and Perceptual Knowledge. Mind, 118 (472), 1013-1041. doi: 10.1093/mind/fzp131

ROESSLER, Johannes. 2011. Perceptual Attention and the Space of Reasons. In MOLE, Christopher, SMITHIES, Declan, WU, Wayne (dir.). Attention, Philosophical and Psychological Essays. Oxford University Press. 274-291.

SAYIM, Bilge, WAGEMANS, Johan. 2017. Appearance Change and Error Characteristics in Crowding Revealed by Drawings., Journal of Vision, 17 (11), 1-16. doi: 10.1167/17.11.8

SELLARS, Wilfrid. 1956. Empiricism and Philosophy of Mind. In FEIGL Herbert, SCRIVEN, Michael (dir.). Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 1, 253-329.

SERGENT, Claire, WYART, Valentin, BABO-REBELO, Mariana, COHEN, Laurent, NACCACHE, Lionel, TALLON-BAUDRY, Catherine. 2013. Cueing Attention after the Stimulus Is Gone Can Retrospectively Trigger Conscious Perception. Current Biology, 23(2), 150-155. 10.1016/j.cub.2012.11.047

SHALEV, Lilac, TSAL, Yehoshua. 2002. Detecting Gaps with and without Attention : Further Evidence for Attentional Receptive Fields. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 14(1), 3-26. doi: 10.1080/09541440143000005

SIEGEL, Susanna. 2006. How Does Visual Phenomenology Constrain Object-Seeing ? Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 84 (3), 429-441. doi: 10.1080/00048400600895961

SIEGEL, Susanna, SILINS, Nicholas. 2014. Consciousness, Attention, and Justification. In DODD, Dylan, ZARDINI, Elia (dir.). Scepticism and Perceptual Justification. Oxford University Press. 149-169. doi: 10.1080/00048400600895961

SIEGEL, Susanna, SILINS, Nicholas. 2019. Attention and Perceptual Justification. In PAUTZ, Adam, STOLJAR, Daniel (dir.). Blockheads ! MIT Press. 487-504.

SIMONS, Daniel. CHABRIS, Christopher. 1999. Gorillas in Our Midst : Sustained Inattentional Blindness for Dynamic Events. Perception, 28, 1059-1074. doi: 10.1068/p281059

SIMONS, Daniel, CHABRIS, Christopher, SCHNUR, Tatiana, LEVIN, Daniel. 2002. Evidence for Preserved Representations in Change Blindness. Consciousness and Cognition, 11(1), 78-97. doi: 10.1006/ccog.2001.0533

SMITHIES, Declan. 2011. Attention Is Rational Access Consciousness. In MOLE, Christopher, SMITHIES, Declan, WU, Wayne (dir.). Attention, Philosophical and Psychological Essays. Oxford University Press. 247-273.

THALABARD, Emile. 2018. Voir et remarquer : Dretske sur la cécité au changement. Philosophie, 137, : 67-89. doi : 10.3917/philo.137.0067.

THIBAULT, Louis, van den BERG, Ronald, CAVANAGH, Patrick, SERGENT, Claire. 2016. Retrospective Attention Gates Discrete Conscious Access to Past Sensory Stimuli. PLoS ONE, 11(2). doi: : 10.1371/journal.pone.e0148504.

TITCHENER, Edward. 1910. Attention as Sensory Clearness. The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods, 7 (7), 180-182. doi: 10.2307/2010783

TREISMAN Anne, GELADE, Garry. 1980. A Feature-Integration Theory of Attention. Cognitive Psychology, 12, 97-136. doi: 10.1016/0010-0285(80)90005-5

TSAL, Yehoshua, SHALEV, Lilac. 1996. Inattention Magnifies Perceived Length : The Attentional Receptive Field Hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 22(1), 233–243. doi: 10.1037//0096-1523.22.1.233

TURRI, John. 2010. On the Relationship between Propositional and Doxastic Justification. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 80 (2), 312-326. doi: 10.1111/j.1933-1592.2010.00331.x

TYE, Michael. 2009. Consciousness Revisited. MIT Press.

USHER, Marius, BRONFMAN, Zohar, TALMOR, Shiri, JACOBSON, Hilla, EITAM, Baruch. 2018. Consciousness without Report : ; Insights from Summary Statistics and Inattention « Blindness ». Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences, 373(1755), 20170354. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2017.0354

VISION, Gerald. 1998. Blindsight and Philosophy. Philosophical Psychology, 11 (2), 137-159. doi : 10.1080/09515089808573253

WARD, Emily, BEAR, Adam, SCHOLL, Brian. 2016. Can you perceive ensembles without perceiveing individuals ? The Role of Statistical Perception in Determining whether Awareness Overflows Access. Cognition, 152, 786-86. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2016.01.010

WATZL, Sebastian. 2011. The Nature of Attention. Philosophy Compass, 6(/11), 842-853. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-9991.2011.00433.x

WEISKRANTZ, Lawrence. 1986. Blindsight : A Case Study and its Implications. Oxford University Press.

WEISKRANTZ, Lawrence. 2009. Is Blindsight just Degraded Normal Vision ? Experimental Brain Research, 192, 413-416. doi: 10.1007/s00221-008-1388-7

WOLFE, Jeremy. 2000. Visual Attention. In De VALOIS, Karen (dir.). Seeing, 2e édition. San Diego, Academic Press. 335-386.

WRIGHT, Wayne. 2005. Distracted Drivers and Unattended Experience. Synthese, 144(1), 41-68. doi: 0.1007/s11229-005-9128-z

WU, Wayne. 2014. Attention. Routledge.

WYART Valentin, TALLON-BAUDRY, Catherine. 2008. Neural Dissociations between Visual Awareness and Spatial Attention. Journal of Neuroscience, 28(10), 2667-2679. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4748-07.2008

ZEKI, Semir. 2007. A Theory of Micro-Consciousness. In VELMANS, Max, SCHNEIDER, Susan (dir.). The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness. Blackwell Publishing. 580-588. doi: 10.1002/9780470751466.ch46

Publiée
2020-11-23
Comment citer
Thalabard, Émile. 2020. « L’ Attention Et La Justificationdes Croyances Perceptives ». Lato Sensu: Revue De La Société De Philosophie Des Sciences 7 (3), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.20416/LSRSPS.V7I3.1.
Rubrique
Article de recherche