• Sphenopalatine ganglion block with botulinum toxin type A using a three-dimensional injection guide for facial pain of cancerous origin: study of a clinical case.
    Vol. 31 No. 1 (2023)

    Objective: Sphenopalatine ganglion block remains a noninvasive therapeutic option to treat diverse facial pain syndromes. The aim of this case report was to verify the effectiveness and safety of three-dimensional (3D) injection guide for sphenopalatine ganglion block in a tongue cancer patient.

    Case report: A 53-year-old man presented with a large squamous cell carcinoma of the right base of the tongue, classified cT4N2M0 and exhibiting excruciating facial pain. A botulinum toxin injection was performed following Dr. Yoshida’s method, using a 3D injection guide.

    Conclusions: Sphenopalatine ganglion block with 3D injection guide can be an effective treatment against cancer pain. In this case report a complete withdrawal of painkillers was obtained less than 24 hours after botulinum toxin injection.

  • Roadmap for daily practice of CBCT in cleft lip palate paediatric patients: a pictorial review.
    Vol. 30 No. 1 (2023)

    Objective: to present and to illustrate a new methodology for daily practice in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) interpretation and reporting in cleft lip palate (CLP) non syndromic paediatric patients. The proposed protocol is based on clinical experience and on systematic search of the literature.

    Material and methods: We performed two types of systematic search of articles: 1) articles related to the use of CBCT in CLP patients, and 2) articles related to the reporting and interpretation of the CBCT images by radiologists. We used two databases PubMed and Google scholar.

    Results: For indications of CBCT in CLP patients we found in PubMed 378 articles and 48 articles were selected for the review; in Google scholar we found 463 articles, and 9 articles were selected for the review. 2) For reporting in CBCT we found 956 articles in PubMed, and 9 articles were selected for the review.

    Conclusions: We presented the 6-steps system for interpretation and reporting information from CBCT of CLP paediatric patients: 1) Step 1 (axial view): presence or absence of bone bridge remnants of alveolar bone graft; Step 2 (3D dental tissue reconstruction): description of dental arch tooth, search for agenesis and supernumerary teeth, description of variation in the position of the tooth explaining the type of existing translation and rotation; Step 3 (coronal view): cleft palate pathway and its extension; anomaly in maxillary, ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses if existing; Step 4 (sagittal and coronal view): checking of the opening (calcification sites) of the sphenooccipital synchondrosis, and checking of anomalies of the occipital bone; Step 5 (3D bone tissue reconstruction): C1-C2 vertebra anomalies; Step 6 (3D soft tissue reconstruction): external ear anomalies. We illustrated our methodology with 46 figures from 5 CBCT of CLP patients.

  • Central mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the maxilla, a challenging diagnosis
    Vol. 29 No. 1 (2023)

    Objective: To present a pictorial review on central mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    Case report: Central mucoepidermoid carcinoma (CMEC), also known as intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma (IMEC), is an extremely rare disease (less than 2-4% of all MEC). However, CMEC is the most frequent malignant salivary gland tumour found in intraosseous locations. Due to this unusual location, diagnosis of CMEC can be challenging. Therefore, CMEC is often mistaken for other intraosseous or odontogenic pathologies. Radiological assessment should include panoramic X-Ray, CBCT and thoracic CT, which should be performed after diagnosis. The recommended treatment includes radical resection surgery, followed by radiotherapy if indicated. A long-term follow-up is recommended for up to 10 years.

    Conclusion: The authors experienced the challenging diagnosis of CMEC through the case of a patient who presented with a slowly growing palatal mass.

  • Paracondylar process and epitransverse process on cone beam computed tomography: a pictorial review based on a serie of 9 patients
    Vol. 28 No. 1 (2023)

    Objective: Paracondylar (PCP) and epitransverse processes (ETP) represent rare types of articulations that can occur between the occipital bone and the transverse process of atlas vertebra.

    Material and methods: Five systematic search strings were conducted on PubMed database on 14.01.2022. The search was conducted by one observer to identify studies on PCP, and on ETP in living patients. Open and close access articles were selected as this topic is infrequently described in the main medical literature.

    Results: We provided with a pictorial review of 1) Paracondylar tubercle, 2) Unilateral PCP with cylindrical shape, 3) Unilateral PCP with pyramidal shape, 4) Unilateral PCP with lateral joint with transverse process, 5) Unilateral PCP with superior joint and partial fusion with transverse process, 6) Unilateral ETP with neo-condyle and joint with occipital condyle, 7) Unilateral ETP with joint with occipital bone, 8) Unilateral ETP with a bony bridge with lateral mass (ponticulus lateralis), and 9) Bilateral variation: paracondylar mass and ETP.

    Conclusions: Six figures were found in the selected literature and belong only to articles published in closed access. We provided with additional 41 open access freely available figures. We were first to present CBCT reference figures of: 1) Unilateral paracondylar tubercle, 2) Fusion of PCP with the transverse process of C1, 3) Joint between ETP and the lateral side of occipital condyle, and 4) Presence of bony bridge (ponticulus lateralis) between ETP and the lateral mass of C1. We were also first to describe a bilateral mixt variation with paracondylar mass on one side and ETP on the other side of C1. An open and accessible knowledge support (such as Nemesis journal) is needed to easily find clinical reference CBCT figures of craniocervicofacial bone variations.

  • New bone formation in the mandibular corpus after mucosal healing in a patient with medication related osteonecrosis of the jaw after treatment by bisphosphonates for multiple myeloma: a case report and pictorial review
    Vol. 27 No. 1 (2022)

    Objective: First cases of osteonecrosis of the jaw in patient exposed to bisphosphonates were presented in 2003. Bisphosphonates related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) was further extended to medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) to include antiresorptive and anti-angiogenic drugs. Some directives were described for the treatment of this disease in function of its gravity. Treatments of high stage of MRONJ are subject to discussion because of their morbidity. Complete healing is difficult to reach and often needs combination of invasive and non-invasive treatment.

    Case report: We report and illustrate a clinical case of new bone formation after MRONJ on pamidronate and zoledronate treatment for multiple myeloma. The treatment of choice was sequestrectomy and conservative treatment.

    Discussion: The consensus to reach a complete healing after MRONJ is not already known. More studies are needed.

  • Publications de chirurgie orale et maxillo-faciale dans les pays à ressources limitées en Afrique sub-saharienne : revue de la littérature.
    Vol. 26 No. 1 (2022)

    Objectif: Déterminer quels étaient les sujets et le contenu des publications réalisées par des chirurgiens oro-et maxillo-faciaux pratiquant quotidiennement dans les pays à moindre ressources d’Afrique sub-saharienne (ASS).

    Matériel et méthodes: Nous avons utilisé deux bases de données, PubMed et African online journals, pour cette revue de littérature. Nous avons limité notre recherche aux années 2000-2022. Nous avons choisi les articles avec le résumé et uniquement en langue anglaise ou française. Pour chaque article nous avons cherché le pays d’origine, la langue de l’article, l’accessibilité des articles ; le nom du journal, le nombre et le type d’illustrations. Pour chaque article en accès libre, nous avons cherché le mode de payement de la publication et la cession les droits d’auteur. Nous avons trouvé 1761 articles et retenu finalement 47 articles.

    Résultats: Les publications issues des pays ASS sont très rares parmi toutes les publications du continent africain (47/1761= 2,6%). Tous les articles retenus étaient publiés dans 33 journaux différents. 46,8% des articles ont été écrits par les auteurs de Tanzanie et de Soudan. Les articles en accès libre représentent la majorité des articles publiés (59%). Les articles en accès fermé sont liés au Noma et aux articles en langue française. Nous avons identifié uniquement deux journaux scientifiques African Health Sciences et South Sudan Medical Journal, qui étaient gratuits pour les lecteurs et les auteurs. La langue anglaise était prédominante (85%). 53 images étaient accessibles gratuitement pour illustrer l’ensemble des sujets de la chirurgie orale et maxillo-faciale dans les pays ASS. Nous avons également présenté les conclusions des articles en les classant par sujets : 1) Tumeurs (13 articles), 2) Traumatismes/fractures maxillo-faciales (11 articles), 3) Fentes (4 articles), 4) Pathologies infectieuses (5 articles), 5) Pratiques culturelles (4 articles), 6) Noma (2 articles), 7) Syndromes (5 articles), et les sujets divers (3 articles).

    Conclusions: Nous avons présenté le système de publications scientifiques actuelles, la place des publications scientifiques et les aspects particuliers des publications sur la chirurgie maxillofaciale dans les pays ASS, nous avons proposé de possibles directions de publication pour les auteurs chirurgiens maxillo-faciaux des pays ASS, ainsi que la place potentielle de la revue Nemesis dans ce contexte africain.


  • Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in pediatric dentistry
    Vol. 25 No. 1 (2022)

    Objective: The aims of this systematic review of the literature were to investigate the uses of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in pediatric dentistry and, if possible, identify the indications.

    Material and methods: A literature search was conducted using the PubMed and Scopus electronic databases and the keywords "CBCT and pediatric dentistry". This search provided us with 1518 references. The selected publications were all clinical articles written in French or English and referring to a pediatric population. After screening, 461 eligible full text articles remained.

    Results: In total, there were 169 references that met the inclusion criteria. Different topics, mainly relating to orthodontics, anatomy, and cleft lips and palate, were discussed. There was large variability in the information concerning the technical parameters. The radiographic protocols that we analyzed showed a large heterogeneity.

    Conclusions: The level of evidence provided by our work is limited because only two randomized double-blind controlled studies are included. Two indications can be distinguished: for orthodontics and for the rehabilitation of cleft lips and palate. There are a multitude of radiographic protocols. More research is needed to identify other potential clinical indications as well as to determine a standard CBCT protocol for children and adolescents.

  • Jael’s syndrome: knife blade impacted in the facial skeleton: an illustrated case report and a review of literature
    Vol. 24 No. 1 (2022)

    Objective: This article focuses on the penetrating trauma of the facial mass caused by the knife with retention of the blade fractured in the facial skeleton.

    Case report: We describe preoperative, intra-operative and post-operative outcomes of the knife stabbing in the face, and of the surgical removal of the broken 8cm long blade using two dimensional, and tridimensional computed tomography, and clinical iconography

    Conclusions: We provide the readership with a broader perspective on iatrogenic facial trauma caused by blades with examples from history of medicine, with biomechanical focus, as well as a review of literature on the management, and on the surgical treatment outcomes of such infrequent emergency in maxillofacial surgery.


  • Diagnostic value of cone beam computed tomography in complex and compound odontomas: a systematic review and open classification matrix
    Vol. 23 No. 1 (2022)

    Objective: Firstly, this review aims to analyse the recent literature about three-dimensional (3D) diagnostic imaging in complex and compound odontomas and compare it to two-dimensional (2D) imaging. Panoramic radiographs help to evaluate the vertical position of odontomas, and occlusal radiographs are used to evaluate the proximity to adjacent teeth. However, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) can offer volumetric images, and therefore, a more accurate three-dimensional analysis. Secondly, this research aims to construct an open classification matrix for complex and compound odontomas for dentomaxillofacial CBCT radiology protocols based on a systematic literature review.

    Material and methods: Two systematic literature searches were conducted in PubMed (Medline), on 2 February 2022 concerning classification systems, and on 5 February 2022 concerning CBCT images.

    Results: In total, these searches revealed 391 papers by reviewing the databases mentioned above. Six articles were selected for inclusion on classification of odontomas and 13 articles were found on CBCT imaging. Consequently, the construction of an open classification matrix for compound and complex odontomas for dentomaxillofacial CBCT radiology protocols was performed using these 19 articles.

    Conclusions: CBCT offers a more precise position and accurate diagnosis of complex and compound odontomas compared to 2D imaging. Consequently, it enhances the detailed view of the site (multiple or unique), location (intraosseous, partially or completely extragnathic), size, extension (bony expansion, thinning or perforation cortical bone), density and type (denticulo type, particle type, denticulo-particle type, denticulo-amorphous type, amorphous tissue), relationship (with the crown or root of the definitive tooth), adjacent teeth resorption (deciduous or definitive), adjacent teeth (retention or impaction), and distance with adjacent structures (inferior alveolar nerve, sinus maxillaris), as well as adequate surgical planning. Moreover, this research presents an open classification matrix for the most complete description of compound and complex odontomas when analysing CBCT imaging.

  • Carpenter syndrome: cone beam computed tomography pictorial review
    Vol. 22 No. 1 (2022)

    Objective: To describe dentoalveolar findings in one pediatric patient with a very rare Carpenter syndrome or acrocephalopolysyndactyly type II, and using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).

    Case report: We found a syndromic oligodontia, upper canine transmigration, and an exceptional agenesis of four lateral incisors. We also described the fourth case in the literature of a single solitary lower incisor on the midline, and the first case ever illustrated on CBCT.

    Conclusions: We proposed and illustrated the use of the system of progressive numbering of teeth on CBCT axial views to better understand complex dental clinical situations such as syndromic oligodontia.

  • Supernumerary teeth in premolar and molar area on CBCT: a pictorial review.
    Vol. 21 No. 1 (2022)

    Objective: to build a descriptive classification of premolar and molar supernumerary teeth (ST) when preparing the cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) report. The aim is also to share wide range of CBCT images in the open access publishing model. Material and methods: For our review we systematically searched for articles from PubMed with 1) free full texts on ST in molar and premolar area and using CBCT, and 2) articles providing with information on complications related with the presence of ST in molar and premolar area. We also added to our review studies providing with classic ST classifications in premolar and molar area. Results: We found 29 cases of ST, and we freely illustrated them with 84 figures. We separated our pictorial review in: 1) unilateral ST in the mandible, 2) unilateral ST in the maxilla, 3) unilateral undersized ST, 4) bilateral ST, 5) ST with additional features, and 6) cases with major hyperdontia. Conclusions: we build up the classification matrix for premolar and molar ST with 11 descriptors and 50 boxes. The descriptors were: 1) location if the ST crown in axial view, 2) vertical location of the cusp tip in relation with closest erupted tooth in coronal view, 3) shape, 4) distribution, 5) Position (in relation to normal tooth eruption) in sagittal view, 6) State of eruption of the ST in the sagittal view, 7) Follicle size measurement in sagittal view, 8) External root resorption of adjacent teeth by ST and its location in relation to the long axis of the involved tooth, 9) Internal resorption of ST, 10) Adjacent tooth complication, and 11) Damage to surrounding structures if ST removal. The open access figures from the literature illustrated 11 boxes. With our pictorial review we were able to illustrate 45 out of 50 boxes, and freely provide the readership with the most complete description of ST in premolar and molar area on CBCT than in previously published studies.

  • Dental use of cone beam computed tomography in pediatric embolized arteriovenous maxillofacial malformation
    Vol. 20 No. 1 (2021)

    Objective: Pediatric facial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare but can cause potentially fatal hemorrhages during dental procedures and oral surgery. In this article we present a systematic review of the medical open access literature on pediatric facial AVM.

    Case report: We illustrate our purpose with clinical dental use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in pediatric embolized facial AVM to define the presence and the position of the right upper impacted canine.

    Conclusions: We advocate the use of CBCT as additional imaging tool in the follow-up of pediatric dentomaxillofacial AVM, and for depiction of dentoalveolar structures that are inaccessible by conventional dental radiography.

  • Mucosal necrosis of the palate after embolization for labial arterioveinous malformation
    Vol. 19 No. 1 (2021)

    Objective: Cervico-facial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are complex and rare vascular lesions, and present in 0.1% of the population. Of traumatic or congenital origin, they are characterized by variable growth, and their complications can be disfiguring and potentially fatal. The treatment of choice is embolization followed by surgery if necessary. The main complications are recurrence and postoperative bleeding.

    Case report: We report the rare case of a 59-year-old female patient who underwent embolization of a right upper labial and jugal AVM, followed by complete necrosis of the right hemi-palatal mucosa associated with dental mobility and pain. Follow-up at 6 months showed complete reepithelialisation of the palate.

    Conclusions: Soft tissue necrosis after AVM embolization is a rare event and is more commonly described after embolization for epistaxis. The evolution is generally favourable within a few weeks.  


  • Cone beam computed tomography in the diagnosis of Stafne bone cavity: Report of seven cases and review of the open-access literature.
    Vol. 18 No. 1 (2021)

    Stafne bone cavity (SBC) is a rare entity to find on panoramic radiography and on cone beam computed tomography. We reviewed in a systematic way the open-access literature from PubMed and DOAJ. We also proposed a new methodology consisting of collaboration with private practitioners, application of participative science approach, and open science practices, and using social media tool to obtain and describe seven different cases of SBC. We finally propose a new matrix table for classification of anatomical types of SBC already described and those yet to be described in open-access literature.

  • Medical and dental hidden treasures and secrets of 2700-year-old Egyptian mummy: Osirmose - the doorkeeper of the Temple of Re.
    Vol. 17 No. 1 (2021)

    Objective: To perform a ‘virtual autopsy’ on the Egyptian mummy and to study, understand, and interpret three-dimensional (3D) high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scan images of Osirmose’s mummy with a multidisciplinary team composed of radiologists, archaeologists, and oral and maxillofacial surgeon.

    Material and methods: We studied the Osirmose’s mummy, the doorkeeper of the Temple of Re, who lived during the XXVth dynasty. His mummy belongs to the Royal Museum of Art and History (Inv. E.5889). We performed a high resolution CT scanning of Osirmose’s mummy. We also 3D printed the upper maxilla of the mummy and a tooth found in the oesophagus with a clinically validated low-cost 3D printer.

    Results: We confirmed the male sex of the mummy. We found the heart, aorta, and  kidneys inside the mummy’s body. Brain excerebration was performed through the right ethmoid bone pathway. A wood stick embedded in the dura mater tissue was found inside the skull. The orbicularis oculi muscle, internal canthus, optical nerves, and calcified eye were still present. Artificial eyes were added above the stuffing of eye globes. The skull and face were embalmed with multiple layers of inner bandages in a sophisticated manner. The wear of maxillary teeth was asymmetrical and more pronounced on the maxilla. We discovered three anomalies of the upper maxilla: 1) a rectangular hole on the palatine side of tooth n°26 (the palatine root of tooth n°26 was missing), 2) an indentation at a right angle palatine to tooth n°27, and 3) a semilunar shape of edges around the osteolytic lesion distal and palatine to tooth n°28.

    Conclusions: The present study provides the first evidence of a tooth removal site, and of oral surgery procedures previously conducted in a 2700-year-old Egyptian embalmed mummy. We found traces of dental root removal, and the opening of a tooth-related osteolytic lesion before the person’s death. The multidisciplinary team, the use of a high resolution 3D CT scan and a 3D-printed model of the upper maxilla helped in this discovery.

  • Déplacement accidentel de la dent de sagesse maxillaire dans le vestibule jugal antérieur
    Vol. 16 No. 1 (2021)

    Accidental displacements of the wisdom teeth of the upper jaw to various anatomical regions are rare. We systematically searched the literature on this issue using PubMed and DOAJ. There is no freely available illustration for the accidental displacement pathways of the upper wisdom teeth imaged by CT scan or by CBCT apart from displacement towards the infra-temporal, and the pterygopalatine fossa. We describe and illustrate by CBCT a unique case in the medical literature of accidental displacement of the wisdom tooth germ of the upper jaw into the anterior jugal space. The potential reasons, consequences and ways to prevent this rare complication of wisdom tooth extraction are also explained.

  • Open access resources on motion artifact in adult dentomaxillofacial CBCT: illustrated pictorial review of medical literature
    Vol. 15 No. 1 (2021)

    Objective: to know how much open access/open knowledge reference figures were available on motion artifacts in CBCT dentomaxillofacial imaging, and to describe and to categorize clinical variation of motion artifacts related to diverse types of head motion retrospectively observed during CBCT scanning time.

    Material and methods: a search equation was performed on Pubmed database. We found 56 articles. The 45 articles were out of scope, and 7 articles were excluded after applying exclusion and inclusion criteria. Only 4 articles were finally freely accessible and selected for this review. Moreover, we retrospectively used our department CBCT database to search examinations with motion artifacts. We also checked retrospectively for radiological protocols as the type of motion artifact was described when occurred during the CBCT scanning time by the main observer. We had obtained the approval from the Ethical committee for this study.

    Results: The accessibility of free figures on motion artifact in dentomaxillofacial CBCT is limited to 13 figures not annotated, and to one annotated figure presenting a double contour around cortex of bony orbits. We proposed to categorize the motion artifacts into three levels: low, intermediary, and major. Each level was related to: 1) progressive image quality degradation, 2) distortion of anatomy, and 3) potential possibility of performing clinical diagnosis. All 45 figures were annotated.

    Conclusions: There exists a scarce open access literature on motion artifacts in CBCT. In our pictorial review we found that low level motion artifacts were more related to head rotation in axial plane (rolling). Rolling and lateral translation were responsible of intermediary level motion artifacts. Major level motion artifacts were created by complex motion with multiple rotation axes, multiple translation directions, and by anteroposterior translation. The main limitation of this study is related to retrospectively report empirical observation of patient motion during CBCT scanning and to compare these observations with motion artifacts found on clinical images. More robust methodology should be further developed using a virtual simulation of various types of head movements and associated parameters to consolidate the open knowledge on motion artifacts in dentomaxillofacial CBCT.

  • Contribution of dental private practitioners to publications on anatomical variations using cone beam computed tomography
    Vol. 14 No. 1 (2020)

    Objective: To investigate the participation of citizens-dental private practitioner in scientific articles about anatomical variations on dentomaxillofacial CBCT. Our null hypothesis was that private practice practitioners are not involved in publications on anatomical variations using cone beam computed tomography.

    Material and methods: This study was performed from home without access to our university library. Only PubMed database was used to perform our study. We found 384 articles published among 1830 articles corresponding to our inclusion/exclusion criteria. For each selected article we searched for affiliation of all of the authors (university, private dental practice, students, other). We applied a co-creation approach to involve colleagues from private practice in analyzing results of this study.

     Results: A large majority of authors have university affiliation (96.5%). Only 3% of authors come from private practice. Most of articles belong to the group of 7 emergent economies (E7), and from Asia. 47.9% of 96 journals published only one article on anatomical variations discovered on CBCT. The higher number of articles (18.75%) were published by journals related to endodontics. The 84% of articles were dispersed among a vast span of general and specific dental, and maxillofacial journals. The 68.4% of articles on variations in CBCT were available in closed access and 31.6% of articles were available in open access. Only 6.7% of articles were published in open access without author publication charges (APC). The 31.6% of authors with university affiliation choose open access for their article. 7.8% of authors from private practice were involved in publishing in closed access journals and 2.34% in open access journals. Only 3 articles (0.78%) were published by authors affiliated to private practice without involvement of university authors. 2.6% of articles involved students as co-authors. Authors with other affiliation were involved only in one closed access publication. For the step of co-creation none of 183 private practitioners, and 3/33 (9%) university-affiliated members of Nemesis Facebook group actively participated in analyzing the results of this study.

    Conclusions: the null hypothesis was accepted: dentists from private practice are exceptionally involved in publications on anatomical variations using CBCT in dentomaxillofacial area.

  • Imprimantes tridimensionnelles grand public compatibles avec la dentisterie ?
    Vol. 13 No. 1 (2020)

    L’objectif de ce travail est de définir les différents critères qu’un dentiste généraliste doit prendre en compte pour s’équiper d’une imprimante tridimensionnelle (3D) à usage dentaire. Nous avons recensé au total 1037 imprimantes 3D produites par 342 entreprises et 211 imprimantes 3D de 88 entreprises pouvant imprimer avec des couches de 25µm. Pour pouvoir les comparer nous avons évalué 16 caractéristiques différentes: 1) famille de procédé d’impression 3D, 2) épaisseur de couche minimale, 3) présence ou non d’étude scientifique de validation de l’épaisseur de couche minimale, 4) résolution XY minimale, 5) type de calibrage, 6) environnement d’impression, 7) présence d’un plateau d’impression chauffant, 8) vitesse d’impression maximale (en mm/s) avec un lien donnant le détail de l’épaisseur de couche utilisée, de la résolution XY utilisée et du matériau utilisé pour déterminer cette vitesse, 9) dimensions de capacité d’impression, 10) capacité d’utiliser des matériaux ne provenant pas de l’entreprise constructrice, 11) capacité d’utiliser des matériaux biocompatibles, 12) poids (en kg) et dimensions de l’imprimante (en cm), 13) systèmes d’exploitation compatibles, 14) types de fichier d’impression 3D compatibles, 15) gestion du service après-vente et durée de la garantie, 16) prix, en indiquant si les taxes sont incluses ou non. Nous avons constaté une grande hétérogénéité des informations présentes et des informations souvent absentes en ce qui concerne : 1) le type de calibrage, 2) la vitesse d’impression, 3) le prix, 4) le service après-vente, 5) la garantie ainsi que 6) les matériaux qui sont pris en compte par l’imprimante 3D. Nous avons décrit des difficultés de communication multiples avec nos interlocuteurs et un développement très dynamique du monde d’impression 3D. Enfin, nous avons proposé des caractéristiques d’une imprimante 3D dentaire « idéale » et d’une entreprise-partenaire « idéale» pour un dentiste désireux de se procurer l’imprimante 3D de son choix.

  • Revue illustrée des principales indications de CBCT en orthodontie.
    Vol. 12 No. 1 (2020)

    Cette revue illustrée porte sur les principales indications actuellement recommandées dans la littérature d’utilisation du cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) en orthodontie. Il s’agit des anomalies dentaires, des canines incluses, des dents surnuméraires, des troubles de l’éruption et des résorptions radiculaires externes liées aux traitements orthodontiques. L’examen CBCT doit être justifié individuellement, au cas par cas, et de pouvoir apporter un bénéfice au patient en terme de diagnostic et/ou de traitement orthodontique. L’orthodontiste prescripteur doit être capable d’interpréter et est responsable de l’interprétation de tout ce qui est visible sur l’ensemble du champs de vue du CBCT.

  • Artifacts related to cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) technology and their significance for clinicians: illustrated review of medical literature.
    Vol. 11 No. 1 (2020)

    Objective: to explain the meaning and to illustrate technical artifacts (aliasing as well as the ring artifact) and beam hardening (metal artifact) that can be present in the dentomaxillofacial cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), and to check the accessibility of free illustrations of these artifacts in medical publications.

    Material and methods: One observer applied five search equations using database PubMed. The exclusion criteria were: experimental studies, animal studies, studies not related to dentomaxillofacial area, and articles with closed access. There was no time limit for the search of articles. We limited our search to English and French language.

     Results: Only 3 articles out of 434 publications were retained after application of inclusion/exclusion criteria. In these articles only 4 annotated figures were freely accessible in medical publications from PubMed.

    In this paper we presented examples of aliasing, ring artifact, and beam artifacts from I-CAT, Carestream 9000 3D (Kodak), and Planmeca Promax 3D Mid CBCT. The intensity of beam hardening artifact varies from major degradation of image (i.e., subperiosteal implants, bridges, crowns, dental implants, and orthodontic fix appliances), through mean degradation (screws securing titanium mesh, head of mini-implant) to no beam hardening on metallic devices (orthodontic anchorage, orthodontic contention wire) or on dense objects (endodontic treatments, impression materials, Lego box). Some beam hardening artifacts arising from nasal piercing, hairs, or hearing aid device may be present on the image but they will not disturb the evaluation of the field of view.

    Conclusions: reduction of aliasing artifact is related with the improvement of detectors quality. The presence of ring artifact means that CBCT device has lost its calibration. The field of view (FOV) needs to be reduce in order to avoid scanning regions susceptible to beam hardening (e.g., metallic restorations, dental implants). Finally, the accessibility to open knowledge on technique -related CBCT artifacts seems extremely limited when searching at PubMed database.

  • Accessibility to the knowledge on anatomical variations from dentomaxillofacial CBCT
    Vol. 10 No. 1 (2020)

    Objective: to investigate the accessibility of open access article on anatomical variations described on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using PubMed database. We wanted to investigate how many journals are sharing articles without pay-wall and how many are sharing articles without author publication charges.

    Material and methods: a search equation was designed with exclusion criteria limiting the search in PubMed to articles published in English and French. The search was performed by one observer. We had found 2228 articles; among them 709 were accessible as ‘full text’. After applying exclusion criteria and after full text reading only 50 articles remained for the review.

    Results: the 50 selected articles shared 306 annotated (visual marking, explanation like arrows) and 432 not annotated figures with the public. The 76% of articles were single studies on one specific topic. The main topic was endodontics with 22 articles. 28 journals from all continents participated in the effort of sharing of figures on anatomical variations from CBCT. However, only 2 journals were completely free of charges for authors and readers.

    Conclusions: we have found only 15 annotated and 3 not annotated figures in 2 articles published in 2 different open access journals (without reader pay-wall and without author publication charges). Sharing the knowledge on anatomical variations from dentomaxillofacial CBCT represents an exception in dental literature.

  • Computed tomography of the heads of ancient Egyptian mummies: a systematic review of the medical literature
    Vol. 9 No. 1 (2020)

    Objective: To summarize the current knowledge on CT scanning of Egyptian mummy heads and faces and provide more valid methodology than that previously available.

    Material and methods: A systematic review was performed by one observer using two biomedical databases: PubMed and EMBASE. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied along with language restrictions. Finally, 2120 articles were found, 359 articles were duplicated among all search equations, 1454 articles were excluded, 307 articles were retained for full review, and 28 articles (31 mummies) were selected for the final study (PRISMA workflow).

    Results: The data were categorized into the following groups: 1) general information; 2) 1st author affiliation; 3) CT radiological protocol; 4) excerebration pathways; 5) soft tissue preservation; 6) dental status and displaced teeth; 7) packing of the mouth, ears, nose, and eyes, and 8) outer facial appearance. The evidence-based quality of the studies was low because only case reports and small case series were found.

    Discussion: The embalming art applied to a mummified head and face shows great variability across the whole span of Egyptian civilization. The differences among the various embalming techniques rely on multiple tiny details that are revealed by meticulous analysis of CT scans by a multidisciplinary team of experts.

    Conclusion: There is a need for more systematization of the CT radiological protocol and the description of Egyptian mumm’y heads and faces to better understand the details of embalming methods.

  • Complications in surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion: a systematic review of the medical literature.
    Vol. 8 No. 1 (2019)

    Our aim was to perform a systematic open-access review of various complications reported for surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME) procedures. There were 37 articles found in Pubmed using the search equation. Twelve articles were initially excluded according to the exclusion criteria. The 25 remaining articles were read in full for their descriptions of complications related to the SARME procedure in mature patients. The main reversible complications of SARME were infection, postoperative pain, and bleeding. There were also complications related to distractors, to secondary surgeries, and pterygomaxillary junction. The main non-reversible complications of SARME were associated with teeth, periodontal bone loss, and skull base fractures. Large field-of-view cone beam computed tomography (maxilla and skull base) should be implemented as initial planning tool to prevent many potential complications. The current trend for “minimally invasive” surgery in SARME might be, from an ethical point of view, transformed onto “minimally complicated” surgery as complication is still more harmful for any given patient than any potential perioperative surgical invasiveness.


  • Troubles oro-faciaux dans Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. Revue systématique.
    Vol. 7 No. 1 (2019)

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) or myositis ossificans is a very rare autosomic dominant disease. Progressive ectopic bone formation occurs in ligaments, muscles and fascia and provoque severe movement limitation with time. The aim of this article is a systematic review of the litterature on FOP and on related problems occurring in oral and maxillofacial region. Some guidance on FOP treatment planning in oral and maxillofacial area are also proposed.

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